ADA Paratransit Eligibility: How To Make Your Case

Date: July 2, 2003

To: Disability community members and related organizations, groups & individuals

From: Kevin Irvine, Senior Transportation Advocate, Equip for Equality

Re: ADA Paratransit Eligibility Handout

The Americans with Disabilities Act requires public transit agencies to provide "paratransit" services to people with disabilities who cannot use the fixed route bus or rapid rail, due to their disability (or access barriers). Unfortunately, some people with disabilities may not know how to effectively advocate for themselves when they are applying for ADA paratransit certification (or re-certification). As a result, some people may be denied paratransit services to which they are legally entitled.

To help address this problem, Equip for Equality (EFE) partnered with Marilyn Golden of Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund (DREDF) to create a new publication, ADA Paratransit Eligibility: How To Make Your Case. EFE also received valuable feedback from some people with disabilities for an early draft of this document. This handout is designed to assist people with disabilities, advocates, agency staff, and/or family members in understanding how a person can effectively advocate for themselves in the paratransit eligibility process. A copy of ADA Paratransit Eligibility: How To Make Your Case. is attached.

Since this publication is designed to be applicable to anyone, in any region of the country, it does not include information specific to any one city, state or region. If you live in the greater Chicago area, you can obtain information about applying for paratransit by contacting the Regional Transportation Authority's Paratransit Certification Program at 312-663-HELP (4357) or 312-913-3122 (TTY) or check out RTA's website at

If you have any questions about this handout, please feel free to contact me directly. If you have feedback on its content or design, please let me know so that your feedback can be considered if this handout is revised or updated in the future.


Kevin Irvine
Senior Advocate, Equip for Equality Inc.
20 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 300, Chicago 60602
312-341-0022 ext. 7321 (voice)
1-800-537-2632 ext. 7321 (voice)
800-610-2779 (TTY)
312-341-0295 (Fax)

written by
Kevin Irvine, Senior Advocate, Equip for Equality
(Illinoisí Protection & Advocacy Ė
& Marilyn Golden, Policy Analyst,
Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund (DREDF Ė

The purpose of this handout is to assist people with disabilities to obtain an accurate and fair ADA paratransit eligibility determination. Many people with disabilities who should be eligible for paratransit services according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) are denied eligibility because transit agencies are not accurately assessing their capacities. People with disabilities can affect this process, in many cases, by carefully documenting their disabling conditions, ensuring all their disability-related impairments are assessed, and taking other steps described below.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires transit agencies to provide paratransit services to people with disabilities who cannot use the fixed route bus or rail service (also known as mainline service). In general, paratransit service must be provided within three-fourths of a mile of a bus route or rail station, at the same hours and days, for no more than twice the regular fixed route fare. The ADA further requires that paratransit rides be provided to all eligible riders if requested any time the previous day, within an hour of the requested time.



The U.S. Department of Transportationís ADA regulations
provide three categories of paratransit eligibility:

ADA Paratransit Eligibility Category 1 = People who canít travel on the bus or train, even if itís accessible, because of a disability

This category includes people who are unable, due to a mental or physical impairment (including a vision impairment), to board, ride, or disembark from an accessible bus or train without assistance. For example:

ADA Paratransit Eligibility Category 2 = People who need an accessible bus or train

This category includes wheelchair users and other people with disabilities who can use an accessible vehicle but who want to travel on a route that is still inaccessible (not served by accessible buses or accessible trains and key rail stations).

ADA Paratransit Eligibility Category 3 = People who have a specific disability-related condition

This category includes people who have a specific disability-related condition that prevents them from traveling to a boarding location or from a disembarking location. Environmental barriers (distance, terrain, weather) or architectural barriers not under control of the transit agency (such as lack of curb ramps) that prevent an individual from traveling to or from the boarding or disembarking locations may form the basis for eligibility. For example:

All three categories include people who may be able to ride mainline transit for some trips and not for other trips.



Step One: Figure out what categories you are eligible for

For each category, provide detailed information/documentation that explains why you are eligible for that category. Some types of documentation will support your claim in more than one category. You should consider your potential travel throughout the entire bus and/or rail system during all seasons, not just those in your immediate neighborhood or those that you normally use. For example, you may be able to get to the bus stop near your home, but not the one near your workplace or the movie theater, or near other future travel destinations. Think about your ability to deal with the variety of environments you might face across town, as well as any variable conditions that you experience due to your disability.


Step Two: Prepare your supporting documentation

The U.S. Department of Transportationís (DOT) ADA regulations do not place any limits on the amount or type of documentation that people with disabilities may provide to support their paratransit eligibility application. This means that you can provide any information or documentation that will help you show that you are eligible because you cannot use the fixed route transit system.

To be successful, you must accurately show that you are actually unable to ride the bus or train all or some of the time, not just that it is more difficult for you.

Be sure to include information on any secondary disabilities you have, such as disorientation, fatigue, or difficulties with balance.

Documentation may include any or all of the following:


Step Three: Make the most of an in-person interview or functional assessment

The DOT regulations allow each transit provider to set up its own system for determining ADA paratransit eligibility. Providers may require in-person interviews, with or without functional assessments or tests. The functional assessment is a process to help determine whether you have the ability to use fixed route bus and/or rail service and, if so, under what circumstances. Functional assessments are evaluations that assess physical, visual, or cognitive ability. They may include a simulated trip to and from a bus, a simulated bus trip, boarding a bus, negotiating a curb or curb cut, crossing the street, etc. Skills evaluated may include balance, strength, coordination, range of motion, bus travel skills, community safety skills, and general orientation. Variables in the environment as well as the personís ability to perform the tasks required to use the bus may be considered.


Step Four: Bring help if you need it

When you have an in-person ADA paratransit eligibility interview or functional assessment and you need self-advocacy help, you can bring someone with you. This person could be a friend, family member, advocate, service provider, lawyer, therapist, etc. Make sure that you discuss how the person will help you before you go to the assessment. If you need this help, you may be able to get assistance from a Center for Independent Living or other disability service agencies.


Step Five: Appeal if you are denied paratransit eligibility

If your application for paratransit services is denied (or you are denied recertification), you may file an appeal, as long as you donít wait too long (you must be allowed at least 60 days within which to file your appeal). To assist you in your appeal, you should review the list of suggestions in Step Two and think about what new documentation you could provide. The eligibility denial letter you received is required to state specifically the reason for the denial. Consider closely the reason(s) given in your denial letter and be sure you address them during your appeal.

The ADA requires that the appeal process include an opportunity to be heard and to present information and arguments. The decision on the appeal must be made by someone uninvolved with the initial decision to deny eligibility. Written notification of the result must be provided, with reason(s) stated. If the transit agency has not made a decision within thirty days of the completion of the appeal process, paratransit service must be provided until and unless a decision to deny the appeal is issued.


Step Six: If your appeal is denied, and you donít think the
ADA paratransit eligibility process was fair, you can...

... File a complaint with the FTA Office of Civil Rights

The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Office of Civil Rights is responsible for civil rights compliance and monitoring, which includes ensuring that providers of public transportation properly implement Title II of the ADA, the DOT ADA regulations, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. In the complaint investigation process, FTA looks for possible ADA violations by the transit provider. ADA violations found by FTA are presented to the transit provider for correction of the problems within a predetermined timeframe. Therefore, it is worthwhile to file a complaint.

To date, FTA has been more involved in pursuing violations of the eligibility process (for example, ensuring that transit agencies have a proper appeals process) than in second-guessing the content of a particular eligibility appeal decision. However, it is very important that FTA hear about problems with eligibility denials, especially serious problems and patterns (that is, when the same problem affects more than one person). Eligibility complaints to FTA may be particularly effective if important information was disregarded by the transit agency, or if multiple complaints are submitted by several people against the same transit agency, especially if all are submitted together.


... Contact your local Center for Independent Living (CIL), Protection & Advocacy (P&A) agency, or other disability advocacy agency

You may find out that other people have had similar experiences when attempting to obtain ADA paratransit eligibility. An organized effort to address problems with a transit provider may result in an improved, fair process for everyone. Some P&A agencies may be able to provide legal advice or even a lawyer to represent you in court.


... File a lawsuit in Federal Court

The ADA requirements for paratransit eligibility are not optional and can be enforced by filing a lawsuit, if necessary. If you cannot get legal assistance from your stateís P&A or another legal assistance agency, you can contact your local bar association for referral to a lawyer or you can file a lawsuit yourself, without a lawyer ("pro se").